What stimulates IGF2?
Glutamine stimulates biosynthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), an autocrine regulator of beta cell mass and function. J Biol Chem. 2014 Nov 14;289(46):31972-31982.
What is Igf1 and IGF2?
Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. In mammals, liver-derived endocrine Igf1 mediates the growth promoting effects of GH during postnatal life, whereas Igf2 stimulates placental and fetal growth and is not regulated by GH.
Where is the IGF2 gene?
In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted genes. In mice this homologous region is found at distal chromosome 7. In both organisms, Igf2 is imprinted, with expression resulting favourably from the paternally inherited allele.
What is the function of IGF2?
The IGF2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called insulin-like growth factor 2. This protein plays an essential role in growth and development before birth. Studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 2 promotes the growth and division (proliferation) of cells in many different tissues.
What are IGF 1 and IGF2?
Growth Factor Signaling Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and IGF-2) are potent mitogens for breast cancer cells and their bioactivity can be enhanced or inhibited by specific IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs).
Where is IGF II produced?
IGF2 is preferentially expressed in early embryonic and fetal development in a wide variety of somatic tissues. The adult expression of IGF2 takes place in the liver and in the epithelial cells lining the surface of the brain, i.e. the meninges and choroid plexus .
How is IGF2 regulated?
IGF2 activity is further controlled through differential expression of receptors and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) that determine protein availability. This complex and multifaceted regulation emphasizes the importance of accurate IGF2 expression and activity.
What causes high IGF2?
IGF2 can be produced in excess by tumour cells because of loss of imprinting (LOI) of the IGF2 gene. IGF2 produced by tumour cells can act in an autocrine manner by binding to isoform A of the insulin receptor (IR-A). This results in stimulation of mitosis and continued production of IGF2.
Is IGF2 a protein?
Background: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a protein hormone known to regulate cell proliferation, growth, migration, differentiation and survival. The gene is parentally imprinted in the sense that transcripts are almost exclusively derived from the paternal allele.
Where is IGF2 produced?
In contrast with IGF1 (147440), which is preferentially expressed after birth and is produced almost exclusively in liver, IGF2 is preferentially expressed in early embryonic and fetal development and in a wide variety of somatic tissues.
What do Somatomedins do?
Somatomedins are a group of proteins produced predominantly by the liver when growth hormones act on target tissue. Somatomedins inhibit the release of growth hormones by acting directly on anterior pituitary and by stimulating the secretion of somatostatin from the hypothalamus.