What is the first stage of research?
The first step of the research work is to state the scientific problem. It is important to clearly state what your problem is to avoid any confusion later. Formulation of scientific problem is frequently recognized as the most difficult and the most important part of research project.
What does Cmax mean in pharmacology?
Peak Concentration. A pharmacokinetic measure used to determine drug dosing. Cmax is the highest concentration of a drug in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or target organ after a dose is given. Related Term(s): Cmin.
What is good research report?
Ideal research reports are extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion. There should be a clean and structured format for these reports to be effective in relaying information.
What is t1 2 in pharmacology?
The pharmacokinetic term half-life (t1/2) refers to the time taken for half the initial dose of medicine administered to be eliminated from the body. t1/2 = 0.693/ke (Where ke = first order elimination constant of the medicine.)
What is Tmax and Cmax?
Cmax – the maximum concentration recorded. tmax – the time take to reach Cmax. AUC (Area Under the Curve) – a measure of the exposure to the drug. t1/2 (elimination half-life) – the time taken for the plasma concentration to fall by half its original value (shown in.
What are the steps in doing quantitative research?
The Steps of Quantitative Research
- Research design.
- Operationalising concepts.
- selection of a research site or sites.
- Selection of respondents.
- Data collection.
- Processing data.
What are the three main stages of testing a new drug?
There are three main stages of testing:
- The drugs are tested using computer models and human cells grown in the laboratory.
- Drugs that pass the first stage are tested on animals.
- Drugs that have passed animal tests are used in clinical trials.
What are the 4 phases of research?
This four-phase model encompasses four interdependent but connecting sub-processes, namely: needs assessment (situation analysis), planning (programme design), implementation and evaluation. This model was considered comprehensive and practical to follow in order to address the research problem.
What are the steps in writing a research report?
Basic Steps in the Research Process
- Step 1: Identify and develop your topic. Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment.
- Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information.
- Step 3: Locate materials.
- Step 4: Evaluate your sources.
- Step 5: Make notes.
- Step 6: Write your paper.
- Step 7: Cite your sources properly.
- Step 8: Proofread.
What is BA and BE studies?
BA/BE studies are needed by regulations to guarantee remedial proportionality between a pharmaceutically comparable test item and a reference item. BA/BE studies are finished Early and late clinical trial definitions, Formulations utilized as a part of clinical trial and steadiness studies.
What are the stages of drug discovery?
Content current as of:
- Step 1: Discovery and Development.
- Step 2: Preclinical Research.
- Step 3: Clinical Research.
- Step 4: FDA Drug Review.
- Step 5: FDA Post-Market Drug Safety Monitoring.
What is a phase 0 study?
Phase 0 of a clinical trial is done with a very small number of people, usually fewer than 15. Investigators use a very small dose of medication to make sure it isn’t harmful to humans before they start using it in higher doses for later phases.
What are the 4 steps of pharmacokinetics?
Four phases of pharmacokinetics The main processes involved in pharmacokinetics are absorption, distribution, and the two routes of drug elimination, metabolism and excretion. Together they are sometimes known by the acronym ‘ADME’.
What is a Phase 4 study?
A Phase IV trial is also known as postmarketing surveillance trial, or informally as a confirmatory trial. Phase IV trials involve the safety surveillance (pharmacovigilance) and ongoing technical support of a drug after it receives permission to be sold (e.g. after approval under the FDA Accelerated Approval Program).
What are the two types of bioavailability?
Bioavailability • The influence of route of administration on drug’s bioavailability is generally in the following order Parenteral > Oral > Rectal > Topical • Most drugs are administered orally, for reason of stability and convenience.
What is a Phase 1 clinical trial?
Phase I clinical trials: Is the treatment safe? Phase I studies of a new drug are usually the first that involve people. Phase I studies are done to find the highest dose of the new treatment that can be given safely without causing severe side effects.
What are the steps of a research?
Steps of the research process
- Step 1: Identify the Problem.
- Step 2: Review the Literature.
- Step 3: Clarify the Problem.
- Step 4: Clearly Define Terms and Concepts.
- Step 5: Define the Population.
- Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan.
- Step 7: Collect Data.
- Step 8: Analyze the Data.
What format is used for writing research report?
Abstract: Summarizes the report including the hypotheses, procedures, and major findings. Introduction: Sections may be combined in short reports. Statement of the Problem: This is a general introduction to the topic. Significance of the Problem: Comment on why this question merits investigation.
What does Cmax mean?
maximum plasma concentration
What kind of factors affects the absorption of oral medication?
Solubility and permeability are considered as the major physicochemical factor that affect the rate and extent of oral drug absorption, moreover other physicochemical properties always show their effects to drug absorption via affecting solubility and permeability.
What are the six components of research report?
The six components of a research report are as follows: An abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and references.