What is post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder?
PTLD is group of conditions that may happen after a transplant. It involves the immune system and causes white blood cells called lymphocytes to multiply out of control. The seriousness varies from an overgrowth of the lymphocytes that is not harmful, to full-blown lymph node cancer (called lymphoma).
How common is PTLD after liver transplant?
In liver transplant recipients, PTLD is reported in up to 2.8% of adults and up to 15% of children . Mortality has been reported as high as 50%, although current management strategies appear to result in improved outcomes [4–7].
What is monomorphic PTLD?
Monomorphic PTLD is defined by the fulfillment of the criteria for one of the recognized types of lymphoma. The majority of monomorphic PTLD cases is non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of B-cell origin; in contrast, T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin’s disease are rare.
Is PTLD treatable?
Most cases of PTLD can be treated successfully, especially if they are diagnosed early. People who are at risk of developing PTLD are usually monitored closely to make sure it is picked up early. The most common treatments for PTLD are: a reduction in the dose of your immunosuppressive drugs.
What type of lymphoma is PTLD?
stem cell transplant. With PTLD, the body makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) or the lymphocytes don’t act normally. PTLD behaves like a fast-growing (aggressive) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Most PTLDs are B-cell lymphomas (less than 15% are T-cell lymphomas).
What is the function of the liver?
The liver regulates most chemical levels in the blood and excretes a product called bile. This helps carry away waste products from the liver. All the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver processes this blood and breaks down, balances, and creates the nutrients and also metabolizes drugs into forms
What type of blood flows through the liver?
Oxygenated blood flows in from the hepatic artery. Nutrient-rich blood flows in from the hepatic portal vein. The liver holds about one pint (13%) of the body’s blood supply at any given moment. The liver consists of 2 main lobes. Both are made up of 8 segments that consist of 1,000 lobules (small lobes). These lobules are connected
What is the shape of the liver?
The liver is reddish-brown and shaped approximately like a cone or a wedge, with the small end above the spleen and stomach and the large end above the small intestine. The entire organ is located below the lungs in the right upper abdomen. It weighs between 3 and 3.5 pounds.
How many lobes are there in the liver?
The liver consists of four lobes, which are each made up of eight sections and thousands of lobules (or small lobes). Functions of the Liver The liver is an essential organ of the body that performs over 500 vital functions.