What is atresia in embryology?
Incomplete formation of the esophagus is known as esophageal atresia, which may be associated with TEFs. Many anatomic variations of esophageal atresia with or without a TEF may occur. The most common anomaly consists of a blind esophageal pouch and a distal TEF.
What causes tracheoesophageal fistula?
Causes of acquired TEFs include iatrogenic injury, blunt chest or neck trauma, prolonged mechanical ventilation via endotracheal or tracheostomy tube, and excessive tube cuff pressure in patients ventilated for lung disease.
What is esophageal atresia?
Esophageal atresia is a birth defect of the swallowing tube (esophagus) that connects the mouth to the stomach. In a baby with esophageal atresia, the esophagus has two separate sections—the upper and lower esophagus—that do not connect.
What is the difference between atresia and fistula?
Esophageal atresia (EA) occurs when the upper part of the esophagus does not connect with the lower esophagus and stomach. Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between the upper part of the esophagus and the trachea or windpipe.
What are the 5 types of tracheoesophageal fistula?
Esophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-esophageal fistula and can be divided into1:
- type A: isolated esophageal atresia (8%)
- type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%)
- type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%)
- type D:
- type E: isolated fistula (H-type) (4%)
What is a transesophageal fistula?
Tracheoesophageal fistula is an abnormal connection in one or more places between the esophagus (the tube that leads from the throat to the stomach) and the trachea (the tube that leads from the throat to the windpipe and lungs). Normally, the esophagus and the trachea are two separate tubes that are not connected.
What are symptoms of a tracheoesophageal fistula?
Symptoms of Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Esophageal Atresia
- Coughing or choking while nursing or taking a bottle.
- Frothing or drooling from the mouth.
- Difficulty breathing while feeding.
- Blue-tinged skin while feeding.
- An unusually rounded abdomen.
- Failure to gain weight.
Why does esophageal atresia occur?
A birth defect, esophageal atresia occurs when the upper esophagus, which carries food from the mouth to the stomach, does not connect with the lower esophagus and stomach. The connection problem is because the esophagus grows into two separate segments—instead of one—and neither of which is connected.
Who is at risk for esophageal atresia?
Reported environmental risk factors for EA/TEF only are low maternal parity,3,4 maternal age of <20 or >35 years,3,5,–7 maternal methimazole intake,8 use of non-contraceptive sex hormones,9,10 and maternal exposure to herbicides/insecticides.
What is a TEF baby?
Almost 90 percent of babies born with esophageal atresia also have a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), in which the esophagus and the trachea are abnormally connected, allowing fluids from the esophagus to get into the airways and interfere with breathing. A small number of infants have only one of these abnormalities.
What is the most common type of tracheoesophageal fistula?
The most common type is the type C fistula which accounts for 84% of TE fistulas. The type C fistula includes proximal esophageal atresia with distal fistula formation. Polyhydramnios on fetal ultrasound is a common presentation of this type of fistula due to the inability of the fetus to swallow amniotic fluid.
What is tracheoesophageal atresia and fistula?
Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a condition resulting from abnormal development before birth of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (the esophagus ).