What is a catalytic converter simple explanation?
A catalytic converter is a simple device that uses basic redox reactions to reduce the pollutants a car makes. It converts around 98% of the harmful fumes produced by a car engine into less harmful gases. It is composed of a metal housing with a ceramic honeycomb-like interior with insulating layers.
What is the function of a catalytic converter?
The catalytic converter helps to reduce airborne pollutants that could harm people as well as the environment, turning 90% of harmful emissions into less harmful gasses. A well-maintained catalytic converter improves the efficiency of your car, directly affecting its overall health and performance.
What are 3 things a catalytic converter does?
The catalyst helps to convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. It converts the hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and water. It also converts the nitrogen oxides back into nitrogen and oxygen.
What is a catalytic converter made of?
The catalytic converter itself is made from a heat resistant substrate, with a large internal honeycomb structure covered in a thin coating of tiny particles of metal. Platinum, palladium and rhodium are the metals commonly used within catalytic converters to help break down pollutants.
Where is a catalytic converter found?
In today’s cars the catalytic converter is found underneath the vehicle towards the exhaust outlet, a position that makes it accessible to thieves who can cut the whole unit out from underneath the car.
How do catalytic converters work chemistry?
Catalytic converters use reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions to reduce harmful emissions. They use a reduction catalyst composed of platinum and rhodium. It helps reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) by removing nitrogen atoms from nitrogen oxide molecules (NO and NO2). This lets the free oxygen form oxygen gas (O2).
Do all vehicles have catalytic converters?
Every vehicle on the road has a catalytic converter — they’ve been required as of 1975 — meaning every vehicle is also a potential target for thieves. Some cars, however, may be at increased risk simply because of how they’re built.
What are the different types of catalytic converters?
Currently, there are 3 types of Catalytic Converters used in cars, namely:
- Oxidation Catalyst (OC) In the type of CCO (Catalytic Converter for Oxidation), Oxygen will react with CO and HC to form CO2 and H2O which do not contain pollution.
- Three-Way Catalyst (TWC)
- Three-Way Catalyst & Oxidation Catalyst (TWC-OC)
What is catalytic converter explain its working with diagram?
The Cat-Con reduces the harmful exhaust gases through chemical reactions. It reacts with the harmful pollutants in the exhaust gases and turns them into lesser harmful gases. The catalytic converter consists of a special catalyst. It is made of platinum and palladium which carries out the chemical reactions.
What kind of metal is in a catalytic converter?
The catalyst component of a catalytic converter is usually platinum (Pt), along with palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh). All three of these platinum group metals, or PGMs, are extremely rare but have a broad range of applications in addition to catalytic converters.
How many catalytic converters are in a car?
one catalytic converter
Answer provided by. Most cars will have one catalytic converter. If you have a car with a dual exhaust system, however, your car will have two catalytic converters.
Why do thieves steal catalytic converters?
Money is the main reason catalytic converters are often stolen. They contain three metals that aid in the chemical reaction that makes exhaust pollutants less harmful: platinum, palladium and rhodium. The prices of these metals have risen dramatically during the early 21st century.
“Direct-fit” catalytic converters are of three basic types: two-way, three-way and three-way plus oxidation converters. Two-way “oxidation” converters are used up to 1980 and are designed to eliminate hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO).
What is the history of the catalytic converter?
Houdry invented the basic oxidation catalyst for tackling carbon monoxide. Improved, three-way catalytic converters, which could also tackle nitrogen oxides, were designed in the early 1970s by Carl Keith (1920–1988), John Mooney (1929–), and chemical engineers at Engelhard Corporation.
What is the difference between two way and three way catalytic converters?
Two-way “oxidation” converters are used up to 1980 and are designed to eliminate hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). Three-way converters are designed to eliminate nitrogen oxides (NOX) as well.
What type of chemical reactions occur in a catalytic converter?
What chemical reactions happen in a catalytic converter? Catalytic converters use reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions to reduce harmful emissions. They use a reduction catalyst composed of platinum and rhodium. It helps reduce nitrogen oxides (NO x) by removing nitrogen atoms from nitrogen oxide molecules (NO and NO 2).