What happens if a patient receives irradiated blood products?
Irradiated or non-irradiated transfusions have many risks involved including elevated potassium levels and graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). Irradiated blood is able to destroy the leukocytes responsible for TA-GVHD, but it adversely causes elevated extracellular potassium due to hemolysis of the RBC’s.
What is an indication for irradiated blood products?
To prevent ta-GvHD, irradiated blood products should be given to patients at risk: patients after bone marrow transplantation, newborns and children in the 1st year, patients with severe combined immunodeficiency, and patients receiving blood from first-degree relatives.
Do immunocompromised patients need irradiated blood?
Irradiation of cellular blood components currently is the only acceptable method for preventing TA-GVHD. Fresh, unfrozen plasma also needs to be irradiated, because it may contain viable lymphocytes. Fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitates do not need to be irradiated.
What blood products can be irradiated?
Only cellular blood components (red cells, platelets and granulocytes) need to be irradiated.
When should irradiated blood be used?
As described in the Technical Manual (20th Edition) and Circular of Information (October 2017), cellular blood components are irradiated prior to transfusion to prevent the proliferation of viable T lymphocytes which are the immediate cause of Transfusion Associated-Graft Versus Host Disease (TA-GVHD).
Who needs irradiated red blood cells?
Irradiated Blood Component Required Donors of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells receiving allogenic transfusions 7 days prior to or during the harvest.
Which patients should receive irradiated blood components?
Immunocompromised patients such as
- Infants (particularly premature) up to 4, 6, or 12 months depending on institutional policy.
- Intrauterine transfusion* and/or neonatal exchange transfusion recipients.
- Congenital immunodeficiency disorders of cellular immunity (i.e., SCID, DiGeorge)*
Why are blood products Leukoreduced and irradiated?
Irradiated Blood: Irradiation is needed to destroy all nucleated cells and living leukocytes (white blood cells), particularly lymphocytes that could cause transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TAGVD).
What is irradiation used for?
Irradiation is a technique used in food production. It can be used to kill bacteria that cause food poisoning, such as salmonella, campylobacter and E. Coli. It also helps to preserve food and reduce food waste.
Who should not get irradiated blood products?
What is the difference between leukoreduced and irradiated?
Leukoreduction can be accomplished with frozen, deglycerolized units of RBCs. Leukoreduction filters to remove leukocytes are not completely effective. Gamm irradiation is expensive, but will kill the nucleated cells (lymphocytes) that could cause TAGVD.