Table of Contents

## Is the circle oriented clockwise?

A general circle will have radius R with center at the point (a, b) and will be oriented in either the clockwise or the anticlockwise direction and can start from any point on the circle. (i) First, a circle center (0, 0) and radius 1 oriented counterclock- wise has parametric equations { x(t) = cos(t) y(t) = sin(t) .

## What is P and Q in Green’s theorem?

Green’s theorem relates the value of a line integral to that of a double integral. Here it is assumed that P and Q have continuous partial derivatives on an open region containing R.

**What is the statement of Green’s theorem?**

Green’s theorem states that the line integral is equal to the double integral of this quantity over the enclosed region.

**What does oriented clockwise mean?**

Orientation of a simple polygon If the determinant is negative, then the polygon is oriented clockwise. If the determinant is positive, the polygon is oriented counterclockwise.

### Does orientation affect line integrals?

Scalar line integrals are independent of curve orientation, but vector line integrals will switch sign if you switch the orientation of the curve. This make sense intuitively, as the mass of the slinky shouldn’t change, but the work done by a force field changes sign if you move in the opposite direction.

### Why is parametrization useful?

This procedure is particularly effective for vector-valued functions of a single variable. We pick an interval in their domain, and these functions will map that interval into a curve. If the function is two or three-dimensional, we can easily plot these curves to visualize the behavior of the function.

**What does parameterizing a curve mean?**

Parameterization definition. A curve (or surface) is parameterized if there’s a mapping from a line (or plane) to the curve (or surface). So, for example, you might parameterize a line by: l(t) = p + tv, p a point, v a vector. The mapping is a function that takes t to a curve in 2D or 3D.

**What is a positively oriented circle?**

A positively oriented curve is a planar simple closed curve (that is, a curve in the plane whose starting point is also the end point and which has no other self-intersections) such that when traveling on it one always has the curve interior to the left (and consequently, the curve exterior to the right).

#### What is green and Stokes Theorem?

Green and Stokes’ Theorems are generalizations of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, letting us relate double integrals over 2 dimensional regions to single integrals over their boundary; as you study this section, it’s very important to try to keep this idea in mind.

#### How important is Green’s theorem?

In summary, we can use Green’s Theorem to calculate line integrals of an arbitrary curve by closing it off with a curve C0 and subtracting off the line integral over this added segment. Another application of Green’s Theorem is that is gives us one way to calculate areas of regions.